L’ORIENT, Switzerland — Of all the techniques employed by the luxury watch industry to make its products beautiful and special, guillochage is one of the most obscure.
To the eye, it seems to be little more than a pattern of dots or lines or swirls, typically on dials and cases, produced by a man — or, increasingly, a woman — sitting at a machine chockablock with gears.
But an afternoon spent watching guillocheurs at work is a revelation. The process requires an appreciation of art and design, an understanding of mechanics, an exacting eye and unlimited patience. The arms of an octopus would be nice, too.
Breguet is the industry’s recognized leader in guillochage; it was the first company to use the technique on timepieces and still showcases it today, with a workshop devoted to the technique at the company’s factory in L’Orient, one of the Swiss watch villages in the Le Chenit district of the Vallée de Joux.
The technique, developed in the 16th century, was being used about 300 years later to add a flourish to wooden furniture when Abraham-Louis Breguet encountered it in London. And the company’s founder liked what he saw, according to Vincent Laucella, now Breguet’s creative director.
“Abraham-Louis Breguet did not invent the guillochage but was the first to apply it to watch dials and exploit its full potential,” said Emmanuel Breguet, the company’s vice president, head of patrimony and marketing, and a seventh-generation descendant. The company has been part of the Swatch Group since 1999.
“Placing the fine guilloché patterns behind the hands improved the readability of the watch,” Mr. Breguet added. “By varying the pattern of the fine engraving on the surface of the dial, Breguet found that he could delineate different zones on the dial within which to locate individual complications and indications.”
Today, while most watch companies don’t have a guilloché machine, Breguet has a well-lit workroom filled with 35 of them. And a team of 20 guillocheurs, toiling under the watchful eye of a bust of Abraham-Louis.
Another, smaller work space is used by two specialists, chosen to work with Mr. Laucella on developing new guilloché patterns and applications, like the marine wave introduced in 2017. Eric has been a guillocheur for 24 years, José for 10. (The workers gave only their first names, in keeping with company policy.)
“We work on old machines, from the 1940s or ’50s,” Eric said; the men are accustomed to the vintage units and over the years have modified them to their liking. But then few, if any, guilloché machines are being made today, so Breguet now buys and reconditions units, and started making its own in 2006. (The oldest machine owned by the company dates from about 1820 and is displayed at the company museum, a repository of all things Breguet, above its boutique on the Place Vendôme in Paris.)
A guilloché machine may make the incisions, but a well-trained, meticulous human has to guide it.
With his eyes glued to a microscope, José used one hand to move the dials that determine the placement of the drill tip; most patterns are composed of minute geometric grids, so the positioning must be exact to the tenth of a millimeter.
The depth of the incision was determined by the amount of pressure that he applied to a lever, using one finger on his other hand. That pressure must remain consistent throughout the process, which could take hours for complex patterns.
Feet come into play, too: A foot pedal produces puffs of air to whisk away the dust (but just into a box on the floor when gold is involved, as its dust is reused).
Even the guillocheur’s ears are needed. If too much pressure is applied, the incisions may become too deep and the dial might shatter, a real risk when working on mother-of-pearl. “It’s very fragile,” José said. “If you go too deep, it splinters.”
Both Eric and José tried their best to make the warning sound, which sounds something like grinding glass with their teeth, crrrruuunch.
There are basically two types of guilloché machines, one for curved lines and one for straight. Using both, with all the variations of number of lines, width, depth and so on, the resulting number of patterns is, Eric said, “infinite.”
He opened a cabinet drawer and pulled out a felt-lined leather tray holding brass discs — samples of clous de Paris (nails of Paris, which looks like little pyramids and is also known as Paris hobnail), pavé de Paris (bezeled squares like the city’s cobblestones, as in the name), grain d’orge (tiny ovals that resemble the barley grains of its name), panier droit (a checkerboard, like the woven basket of its name), and liseré (broken lines resembling stitches).
Breguet’s pride in its hallmark is evident in a conference room, where a visitor can sip water from a guilloché-decorated bottle, wipe spills with a napkin printed with the same pattern and pore over catalogs with guilloché patterns on their covers. Some watches with beautiful examples of guilloché are displayed there: an oval Reine de Naples with a mother-of-pearl dial (the company maintains that its predecessor was the first wristwatch, although Cartier also claims the distinction), and a La Marine model with the marine waves pattern.
And, for everyone to see, the dials of both timepieces, as with all Breguet guilloché watches, are marked “Swiss Guilloché Main,” or guilloché made by hand in Switzerland.
合数怎么分单双“【宋】【顾】【问】，【你】【也】【去】【外】【面】，【把】【想】【要】【吵】【醒】【睡】【他】【们】【的】【人】【和】【交】【头】【接】【耳】【的】【人】【都】【记】【下】【来】！” 【宋】【何】【面】【色】【平】【静】【的】【点】【点】【头】，【拿】【着】【小】【本】【站】【在】【会】【议】【室】【门】【口】。 【很】【快】，【周】【凯】【和】【马】【学】【先】【也】【在】【此】【起】【彼】【伏】【的】【呼】【噜】【声】【中】【走】【出】【会】【议】【室】，【一】【言】【不】【发】【的】【来】【到】【走】【廊】【正】【中】，【开】【始】【站】【军】【姿】。 【刹】【那】【间】，【原】【本】【还】【算】【宽】【敞】【的】【走】【廊】【顿】【时】【变】【得】【拥】【挤】【起】【来】。 【只】【见】【走】【廊】【两】【侧】
【叱】【咤】【雷】【霆】，【剑】【仙】【大】【队】【总】【队】【长】。【这】【两】【个】【人】【都】【是】【修】【真】-【世】【界】【数】【一】【数】【二】【的】【官】【方】【高】【手】，【你】【叶】【琛】【是】【什】【么】【情】【况】【谁】【不】【知】【道】。 【压】【上】【整】【个】【苑】【白】【星】【都】【不】【是】【对】【方】【的】【对】【手】，【你】【一】【个】【人】，【能】【撵】【几】【颗】【钉】【子】【啊】。 【唉】…… 【云】【中】【火】【担】【心】【叶】【琛】【的】【安】【危】，【无】【奈】【自】【己】【现】【在】【被】【封】【印】【着】，【只】【能】【看】【着】【不】【能】【说】【话】。【而】【楚】【乔】【虽】【然】【相】【对】【自】【由】，【但】【是】【大】【天】【尊】【明】【显】【在】【考】【验】【叶】
【方】【中】【凯】【抱】【起】【箱】【子】，【轻】【轻】【抖】【一】【抖】，【把】【箱】【子】【里】【的】【资】【料】【文】【件】【全】【部】【到】【处】，【从】【办】【公】【桌】【拿】【起】【把】【刀】【片】，【沿】【着】【箱】【底】【划】【开】【一】【道】【线】。 【果】【然】，【这】【纸】【箱】【内】【部】【还】【有】【一】【层】，【撕】【开】【后】，【里】【面】【整】【整】【齐】【齐】【码】【着】【一】【捆】【捆】【的】【百】【元】【大】【钞】。 【秦】【振】【伟】【看】【他】【坐】【下】【抽】【烟】【不】【说】【话】，【示】【意】【后】【面】【的】【人】【把】【赃】【款】【先】【带】【走】，【自】【己】【过】【去】，【挪】【着】【屁】【股】【坐】【在】【办】【公】【桌】：“【我】【虽】【然】【跟】【你】【接】【触】【不】【多】
【只】【是】【一】【眨】【眼】【的】【事】【情】，【哈】【比】【图】【斯】【就】【失】【去】【了】【两】【根】【手】【指】，【但】【是】【他】【却】【顾】【不】【得】【截】【断】【处】【传】【来】【的】【疼】【痛】，【一】【咬】【牙】【从】【驴】【车】【上】【翻】【了】【下】【去】，【结】【果】【落】【地】【的】【时】【候】【脚】【下】【没】【有】【站】【稳】，【险】【些】【摔】【到】【一】【个】【水】【坑】【里】。 【然】【而】【张】【恒】【这】【却】【暂】【时】【顾】【上】【去】【追】【他】，【因】【为】【巴】【赫】【还】【在】【穆】【尔】【卡】【赞】【的】【手】【上】。 【不】【过】【后】【者】【这】【会】【儿】【也】【有】【些】【大】【事】【不】【好】【的】【感】【觉】【了】，【他】【没】【想】【到】【哈】【比】【图】【斯】【会】【失】【手】，合数怎么分单双【好】【半】【晌】，**【若】【和】【沐】【乐】【瑶】【才】【从】【更】【衣】【室】【走】【出】【来】。**【若】【伸】【了】【伸】【懒】【腰】，【一】【脸】【的】【舒】【爽】【惬】【意】，【阳】【光】【正】【好】，【从】【走】【廊】【的】【窗】【户】【照】【射】【进】【来】，【让】【人】【暖】【洋】【洋】【的】，【很】【是】【舒】【服】。 “【哟】【偶】，【终】【于】【出】【来】【了】，【换】【个】【衣】【服】【还】【要】【那】【么】【久】，【腿】【都】【站】【麻】。”【张】【婷】【笑】【着】【拍】【拍】【裙】【摆】【笑】【着】【说】【到】：“【你】【们】【要】【是】【再】【不】【出】【来】，【我】【们】【都】【要】【敲】【门】【进】【去】【了】。【也】【不】【知】【道】【不】【是】【着】【衣】【服】【设】【计】
【丫】【丫】【嘴】【角】【含】【笑】【的】【走】【了】。 【只】【留】【下】【两】【边】【脸】【颊】【红】【肿】【的】【彭】【辉】【在】【原】【地】【苦】【笑】。 【不】【过】【看】【着】【丫】【丫】【离】【开】【的】【背】【影】，【彭】【辉】【的】【脸】【上】，【也】【不】【由】【得】【浮】【现】【出】【了】【一】【抹】【微】【笑】。 【自】【己】…… 【当】【父】【亲】【了】！ 【自】【从】【父】【母】【去】【世】【之】【后】，【老】【彭】【家】【就】【再】【也】【没】【有】【新】【丁】【诞】【生】【了】。 【他】【和】【小】【鞠】【最】【近】【才】【在】【一】【起】【的】。 【小】【鞠】【又】【是】【偶】【像】，【爱】【的】【广】【播】【体】【操】【的】【时】【候】，【都】【会】【各】
【第】262【章】【不】【重】【要】【了】 【基】【洛】【夫】【格】【勒】【之】【星】【雷】【耶】***【多】【乐】【士】**【已】【经】【突】【破】【了】【罗】【夫】【诺】【维】【雷】【斯】【尤】【里】【乌】【斯】***【多】【乐】【士】**【的】【防】【线】，【在】【一】【旁】【不】【断】【传】【来】【恒】【利】【威】【尔】【威】【廉】【在】【深】【秋】【接】【手】【了】【这】【支】【运】【营】【自】【本】【公】【司】，【这】【支】【运】【营】【自】【本】【公】【司】【立】【即】【飞】【向】【罗】【夫】【诺】【维】【雷】【斯】【尤】【里】【乌】【斯】***【的】【多】【乐】【士】**。 【基】【洛】【夫】【格】【勒】【之】【星】【雷】【耶】***【库】【尔】** 【罗】【夫】